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Thursday, 19 November 2020

Discuss about the meaning of policies

Renu visits the National library and frequently orders a plate of vegetarian thali at rupees 30 a plate. A similar thali in the nearby railway canteen is available at rupees 45. She gets similar food at rupees 210 at the big restaurant in the city center. India follows a mixed economy and that is why states provide subsidies on food in libraries instructs railway canteen operator to charge a responsible price fixed by the government. However, the restaurant at City center made charge good amount of margin.

in England, you do not have to pay a single penny to enter the British Museum and National art gallery. Do the UK follows a capitalist economy it has several socialistic principles ingrained in its state policy.

In any national policy-making process is related to political actions

Long back coma Gabriel almond outlined the political system as a set of interactions having structures each of which performs its functions in order to keep it as an ongoing concern, it is a set of processes that routinely converts inputs into outputs first of these outputs are the public policies for stock an autocratic rural looks for policies which dominate over public freedom.

When India was the British colony public freedom was conscious of its absence. Tax rules were stringent on Indian traders, whereas a democracy frames liberal policies.

In Indian democracy, we have several political parties

Leaders are free to argue in parliament. State and the center have many shared responsibilities to stop people's grievances are heard. There are several legal systems to take care of disputes.

almond classified their inputs of the political system into generic functional categories like political socialization and recruitment interest aggregation interest articulation and political communication. Output activities are those which are carried on by a political system in response to demands or stress placed upon the system in the form of inputs. Outputs generally take the form of Government till policies and programs comedy seasons etc.

David Stern propounded another model on politics and policy relationship which is known as feedback or the black-box model. The model identifies that there are many Social demands which are not included in the decisions and policies designed by the state. In course of time, the government tries to look for some avenues to look for a feedback process towards the public policy. These processes are known as policy reforms.

We frequently observed such black-box models in India 

The government makes several experiments with Intex human resource policies and changes them on public demand. The indirect tax regime has been changed with the introduction of GST with effect from 1st July 2017 first of earlier age-old the companies act 1956 was replaced by a new act in the year 2013.

in Indian commerce a lot of discourses researches and experiments on public policies used to take place in the age-old University of Takahashi, Vaishali, and Nalanda. During the time of emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the great intellectual Guru of the emperor, Chanakya outline the public policy of the state he authored the book the Shastra, a conceptual framework of statecraft and public policy. In the Greek city-states and Roman empire, public policy was the center of attraction. Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle had a number of disclosures on public policy. During the time when Ashoka the great ruled Magadh, he introduced the policy of peace and harmony. On the other hand, guptas define various policies on taxes, trade, and welfare. In Delhi, Sultan Alauddin Khilji introduced a stringent tax reform, where is during the time of Akbar da great, land reforms were introduced under the leadership of todarmal. In all the forms of governance be it oligarchic, monarchy, aristocracy for democracy, the public policy where formulated and implemented.

India attained freedom in 1947 with a party partition of the nation. Riots and famines broke out in different parts of the nation. The new government of India faced a mammoth developmental challenge. strong policymaking was required as a nation had a diversity of languages cultures and inequalities. The existence of a multiplicity of princely states, lack of industries, lack of enough food and grains to feed the huge population of the country where a banking system remained the other problems. India was looking for strong policy decisions.

in the contemporary world, strong economics like us European Nations like Germany France Switzerland Denmark Sweden, and Japan from Asia have clear cut policies on governance economic market taxes and duties and military spending. The emerging economics like Brazil Russia India China and South Africa have distinct policies on governance. The source elastic and communist states like China common North Korea, the erstwhile Soviet union used to set highly control public policies. To cope with the very economic problems and demands of the people, every single government has two outlined these policies.

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